|MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator)||During WWII, by Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katherine Briggs, to help women entering the workforce||Based on Swiss Psychologist Carl Jung’s typology; four dichotomies: Extravert vs. Introvert, Sensor vs. Intuitive, Thinker vs. Feeler, and Judger vs. Perceiver relate to energy, learning/taking in information, making decisions, and need for order in life, respectively|
|Keirsey Temperament Sorter||1956, by personality psychologist David Keirsey||Based on ancient temperament theory by Hippocrates and Plato; four temperaments: Idealists, Rationals, Artisans, and Guardians—further divided into two categories each (roles) with two types each (variants)|
|DISC (Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, Compliance)||By John Geier, based on psychologist William Marston’s 1928 published theories||Quadrant behavior model; tests behavior preferences in four areas (the acronym):
|FIRO (Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation)||1958 by American psychologist William Schutz to assess how teams performed in the Navy||9 “types” measure amount of interaction a person desires in/with groups—Expressed and Wanted levels of Inclusion, Control, and Affection/Openness on a 0–9 scale; frequently used with MBTI; reflects learned behavior|
|Strong Interest Inventory||1927, by psychologist E. K. Strong, Jr., to help people exiting the military find jobs; modern version based on Holland Codes||Interest, not personality, assessment;The results include:
|Holland Codes (RIASEC)||By psychologist John Holland||Holland’s believed “the choice of a vocation is an expression of personality”; describes both people and work environments.Used by U.S. Dept. of Labor for classifying jobs. All people have some interest in all, but top two or three are used in occupational guidance.
Model: the hexagon. Those areas touching are more closely related.
The six personality and work environment types:
|Multiple Intelligences||1983, by American developmental psychologist Howard Gardner||Used in education; 8 major intelligences:
|Kingdomality||1990, by vocational psychologist Richard Silvano||12 medieval vocations as career types: